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Joint Audit

Written By Admin on Saturday, 26 January 2013 | Saturday, January 26, 2013



Shared by Usha Desai


Now its common practice of appointing more than one auditor to conduct the audit of large entities Such auditors, known as joint auditors, conduct the audit jointly and report on the financial statements of the entity. Joint audit basically implies pooling together the resources and expertise of more than one firm of auditors to render an expert job in a given time period which may be difficult to accomplish acting individually. The important aspect of joint audit assignments include possible bases of division of work among joint auditors, coordination among joint auditors, joint and several liability of joint auditors, responsibility for obtaining and evaluating information and explanation from management, responsibility for scrutiny of branch accounts and returns, need for review of work performed by one joint auditor by other joint auditor(s), reporting responsibilities etc.

Division of works

1. Where joint auditors are appointed, they should, by mutual discussion, divide the audit work among themselves. 



    • In terms of audit of identifiable units or specified areas.
    • Items of assets or liabilities or income or expenditure or with reference to periods of time.
    • Certain areas of work, owing to their importance or owing to the nature of the work involved, would often not be divided and would be covered by all the joint auditors.
Responsibilities

2. In the case where audit work divided among the joint auditors, each joint auditor is responsible only for the work allocated to him, whether or not he has prepared a separate report on the work performed by him. On the other hand, all the joint auditors are jointly and severally responsible:-



    • In respect of the audit work which is not divided among the joint auditors and is carried out by all of them;
    • In respect of decisions taken by all the joint auditors concerning the nature, timing or extent of the audit procedures to be performed by any of the joint auditors.
    • In respect of matters which are brought to the notice of the joint auditors by any one of them and on which there is an agreement among the joint auditors.
    • For examining that the financial statements of the entity comply with the disclosure requirement of relevant statute; and
    • For ensuring that the audit report complies with the requirements of the relevant statute.
The practice of appointing more than one auditor to conduct the audit  of large entities is in vogue these days. Such auditors, known as joint auditors, conduct the audit jointly and report on the financial statements of the entity. This Standard deals with the professional responsibilities which the auditors undertake in accepting such appointments as joint auditors. The SA 299 does not deal with the relationship between a principal auditor who is appointed to report on the financial statements of an entity and another auditor who is appointed to report on the financial statements of one or more divisions or branches included in the financial statements of the entity, e.g., the relationship between a company auditor appointed under section 224 of the Companies Act, 1956 and a branch auditor appointed under section 228 of the said Act.

Division of Work


3. Where joint auditors are appointed, they should, by mutual discussion,divide the audit work among themselves. The division of work would usually be in terms of audit of identifiable units or specified areas. In some cases, due to the nature of the business of the entity under audit, such a division of work may not be possible. In such situations, the division of work may be with reference to items of assets or liabilities or income or expenditure or with reference to periods of time. Certain areas of work, owing to their importance or owing to the nature of the work involved, would often not be divided and would be covered by all the joint auditors.

4. The division of work among joint auditors as well as the areas of work to be covered by all of them should be adequately documented and preferably communicated to the entity.

Coordination


5. Where, in the course of his work, a joint auditor comes across matters which are relevant to the areas of responsibility of other joint auditors and which deserve their attention, or which require disclosure or require discussion with, or application of judgement by, other joint auditors, he should communicate the same to all the other joint auditors in writing. This 2 These aspects have been dealt with in Standard on Auditing (SA) 600 (revised 2002), “Using the Work of Another Auditor”.

Relationship Among Joint Auditors


6. In respect of audit work divided among the joint auditors, each joint auditor is responsible only for the work allocated to him, whether or not he has prepared a separate report on the work performed by him. On the other hand, all the joint auditors are jointly and severally responsible –

    • in respect of the audit work which is not divided among the joint auditors and is carried out by all of them;
    • in respect of decisions taken by all the joint auditors concerning the nature, timing or extent of the audit procedures to be performed by any of the joint auditors. It may, however, be clarified that all the joint auditors are responsible only in respect of the appropriateness of the decisions concerning the nature, timing or extent of the audit procedures agreed upon among them; proper execution of these audit procedures is the separate and specific responsibility of the joint auditor concerned;
    • in respect of matters which are brought to the notice of the joint auditors by any one of them and on which there is an agreement among the joint auditors;
    • for examining that the financial statements of the entity comply with the disclosure requirements of the relevant statute; and
    • for ensuring that the audit report complies with the requirements of the relevant statute.

6. If any matters of the nature referred to in paragraph 4 above are brought to the attention of the entity or other joint auditors by an auditor after the audit report has been submitted, the other joint auditors would not be responsible for those matters.

7. Subject to paragraph 5(b) above, it is the responsibility of each joint auditor to determine the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures to be applied in relation to the area of work allocated to him. The issues such as appropriateness of using test checks or sampling should be decided by each joint auditor in relation to his own area of work. This responsibility is not shared by the other joint auditors. Thus, it is the separate and specific responsibility of each joint auditor to study and evaluate the prevailing system of internal control relating to the work allocated to him. Similarly, the nature, timing and extent of the enquiries to be made in the course of audit as well as the other audit procedures to be applied are solely the responsibility of each joint auditor.

8. In the case of audit of a large entity with several branches, including those required to be audited by branch auditors, the branch audit reports/returns may be required to be scrutinised by different joint auditors in accordance with the allocation of work. In such cases, it is the specific and separate responsibility of each joint auditor to review the audit reports/returns of the divisions/branches allocated to him and to ensure that they are properly incorporated into the accounts of the entity. In respect of the branches which do not fall within any divisions or zones which are separately assigned to the various joint auditors, they may agree among themselves as regards the division of work relating to the review of such branch returns. It is also the separate and specific responsibility of each joint auditor to exercise his judgement with regard to the necessity of visiting such divisions/branches in respect of which the work is allocated to him.


9. A significant part of the audit work involves obtaining and evaluating information and explanations from the management. This responsibility is shared by all the joint auditors unless they agree upon a specific pattern of distribution of this responsibility. In cases where specific divisions, zones or units are allocated to different joint auditors, it is the separate and specific responsibility of each joint auditor to obtain appropriate information and explanations from the management in respect of such divisions/zones/units and to evaluate the information and explanations so obtained by him.

10. Each joint auditor is entitled to assume that the other joint auditors have carried out their part of the audit work in accordance with the generally accepted audit procedures.3 It is not necessary for a joint auditor to review the work performed by other joint auditors or perform any tests in order to ascertain whether the work has actually been performed in such a manner. Each joint auditor is entitled to rely upon the other joint auditors for bringing to his notice any departure from generally accepted accounting principles or any material error noticed in the course of the audit.

11. Where separate financial statements of a division/branch are audited by one of the joint auditors, the other joint auditors are entitled to proceed on the basis that such financial statements comply with all the legal and professional requirements regarding the disclosures to be made and present a true and fair view of the state of affairs and of the working results of the division/branch concerned, subject to such observations as may be communicated by the joint auditor concerned.

Reporting Responsibilities

12. Normally, the joint auditors are able to arrive at an agreed report. However, where the joint auditors are in disagreement with regard to any matters to be covered by the report, each one of them should express his own opinion through a separate report. A joint auditor is not bound by the views of the majority of the joint auditors regarding matters to be covered in the report and should express his opinion in a separate report in case of a disagreement.

13. This Standard on Auditing becomes operative in respect of all audits relating to accounting periods beginning on or after April 1, 1996.

Illustrative of circumstances

Ø  If there is difference of opinion among the joint auditors with regard to any matter, majority joint auditors opinion will prevail while reporting.

As per SA 299 “Responsibility of Joint Auditors”, where the joint auditors are
in disagreement with regard to any matter to be covered by the audit report each one of them should express his own opinion through a separate report.

Ø  All the joint auditors are jointly and severally responsible for the work, which is not divided und carried on jointly by all the joint auditors.

As per SA 299 on “Responsibility of Joint Auditors” all the joint auditors are jointly and severally responsible for the audit work which is not divided and carried on jointly by all the joint auditors.

Ø  XYZ Co. Ltd. reappointed A and B as their joint auditors in the Annual General Meeting. The AGM authorised the Board for fill up the vacancy on their own in the event of both or either of auditors declined to accept the assignment. The Board passed a resolution to appoint C if any of the auditors declined to accept the assignment. B declined to accept the assignment and Board of Directors appointed C in place of B as per its resolution.


In the present case B is one of the joint auditors who was appointed in Annual General Meeting, but declined to accept the appointment. The Board of Directors as per their resolution, appointed C as a joint auditor in his place.
In this case, the vacancy created by B is neither caused by resignation of B nor is it a casual vacancy because B’s appointment had not become effective. Hence, appointment of C as joint auditor by the Board is not valid. C can only be appointed as joint shareholders in the General Meeting.



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